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Acorus calamus (also called sweet flag or calamus, among many common names) is a tall perennial wetland monocot of the Acoraceae family, in the genus Acorus.

calamus has been an item of trade in many cultures for thousands of years. It is indigenous to India and is found almost throughout India up to altitude of 1800 meters. It has aromatic leaves and rhizomes.

It has been used medicinally for a wide variety of ailments, and its aroma makes calamus essential oil valued in the perfume industry. The essence from the rhizome is used as a flavor for pipe tobacco. When eaten in crystallized form, it is called “German ginger”. In Europe Acorus calamus was often added to wine, and the root is also one of the possible ingredients of absinthe.

Herbal medicine
Sweet flag has a very long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Indian herbal traditions. The leaves, stems, and roots are used in various Siddha and Ayurvedic medicines. It is widely employed in modern herbal medicine for its sedative, laxative, diuretic, and carminative properties. It is used in Ayurveda to counter the side effects of all hallucinogens.

Calamus is used to treat different clinical conditions such as digestive problems, gas, bloating, bronchitis, fever, asthma, cough, rheumatism etc. Its rhizome oil is nerve stimulant, sedative and analgesic.
In Ayurveda calamus is considered tonic for brain, nervous system and cure for digestive system ailments. Calamus is ingredient of Ayurvedic medicine Brahmi Vati which is used for treating epilepsy, hysteria and mental retardation.